Why the Stock Market Crashes and How to Protect Your Investments

Feb. 12, 2023

3 min read

The stock market is a complex system that can be affected by a multitude of factors, and understanding the causes of market crashes is crucial in order to protect your investments. While there is no guaranteed way to predict when a crash will occur, there are several factors that can contribute to market volatility, including economic conditions, geopolitical events, and company-specific news.

Understanding Economic Recessions

Economic recessions can greatly impact the stock market. When the economy is doing well, stocks tend to rise, but when the economy is struggling, stocks can fall. The 2008 financial crisis is a prime example of how a recession can affect the stock market.

During a recession, companies may struggle to make a profit and may have to lay off employees, which can result in lower stock prices. Additionally, consumers may cut back on spending, which can also impact the stock market.

Political Instability

Political instability can also have a major impact on the stock market. Uncertainty about the future can lead to a decrease in consumer and investor confidence, which can result in lower stock prices. For example, the Brexit vote in the United Kingdom in 2016 led to a decrease in the value of the British pound and a drop in stock prices.

Major News Events

Major news events can also affect the stock market. For example, natural disasters such as hurricanes or earthquakes can disrupt supply chains and result in lower stock prices. In addition, major events such as terrorist attacks can lead to decreased consumer confidence, which can also result in lower stock prices.

Company-Specific News

In addition to economic and geopolitical factors, company-specific news can also impact the stock market. For example, if a company announces poor earnings, its stock price may drop. Conversely, if a company announces positive news, such as a major acquisition or a new product launch, their stock price may rise.

Protecting Your Investments

There are several strategies that you can use to protect your investments in the stock market.


One of the best ways to protect your investments is to diversify your portfolio. This means investing in a variety of different stocks and assets, rather than putting all your eggs in one basket. This helps to reduce your risk, as you are not solely dependent on one company or industry for your returns.

Dollar-Cost Averaging

Another strategy for protecting your investments is to use dollar-cost averaging. This involves investing a set amount of money into the stock market at regular intervals, regardless of the stock price. This helps to reduce the impact of market volatility, as you are not making large purchases when the stock market is high, instead, you are buying stocks at a lower average cost.

Avoid Emotional Investing

It is also important to avoid making investment decisions based on emotions. Fear and greed are two of the biggest emotions that can lead to bad investment decisions. When the stock market is down, it can be tempting to sell your investments, but this is often the wrong decision. Conversely, when the stock market is up, it can be tempting to buy more stocks, but this may not be the best decision either.


The stock market can be a volatile place, but understanding why it crashes and implementing strategies to protect your investments can help you to better navigate it. By diversifying your portfolio, using dollar-cost averaging, and avoiding emotional investing, you can better protect your investments and potentially even increase your returns over time.

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